Vrijzinnige Bond

The post-1929 economic cris magnets exacerbated long term downward trends in both LiberalismMagnets for sale Theosophy. Membership in the Netherlands Indies Theosophical Society dropped in the early 1930s. As membership shrunk, so did interest in politics. From 1930-1934, as the only theosophist left, P. Fournier sat in the Volksraad asBar magnets government-appointed member. He AlNiCo also chairman of the by now small Nederlandsch-Indische Vrijzinnige Bond. Fournier, though, disappeared from the council. So did the NIVB from the political parties’ list.12)
As the Vaderlandsche Club grew inside the Volksraad,Magnets for sale the Nationaal Socialistische Beweging outside it, De Jonge, an admirer of fascism, had become the new governor-general of the Netherlands Indies. H magnets hard line policies sharply hurt Indonesian nationalists,Magnets for sale free speech in general.

In Germany, soon after Hitler seized power, the liberal political parties became illegal. So did Theosophy, four years later. In the meantime, The Theosophist monthly had published Jinarajadasa’s denunciation of persecution of Jews; but also praise by the 1934-1945 President George Arundale of Hitler;Magnets for sale an enthusiastic paranormal description by ‘A non-German theosophist’ [G. Hodson?] of the ‘purity’ of the Führer’s beautiful aura.13)

I concludeMagnet for sale both in GermanyMagnets for sale in Indonesia, both liberalismMagnets for sale Theosophy ended up as victims of political shifts to the Right. They became victims without really putting upBar magnets fight. These movements themselves,Magnets for sale their mainly upperMagnets for sale middle class support, were not completely innocent of these rightward shifts.

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1) See D. van Arkel, Antisemitism in Austria. Leiden, typescript, 1966, passim.

2) See: dtv-Atlas zur Weltgeschichte, München, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1968; 150; 194.

3) See on Dutch elections H.W. von der Dunk, In de schaduw van de depressie. Alphen aan den Rijn, Sijthoff, 1982: 57; 175; 179. A. Mussert, the Dutch Nationaal Socialistische Beweging leader, AlNiCo an ex-member of the Vrijheidsbond.

4) Herman de Tollenaere, The Politics of Divine Wisdom. TheosophyMagnets for sale labour, nationalMagnets for sale women’s movements in IndonesiaMagnets for sale South Asia, 1875-1947. Nijmegen: Uitgeverij Katholieke Universiteit, 1996; 371.

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